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Linux: Ubuntu 7.04 ab heute erhältlich

Nachdem ich in den letzen Jahren verschiedene Linux Distributionen auf der Basis von debian - das inzwischen als Version 4.0 erschien - verwendet habe, sagt mir momentan Ubuntu am meisten zu. Zur heute erscheinenden Version Ubuntu 7.04 »Feisty Fawn« erschien auf pro-linux folgender Beitrag:

Ubuntu 7.04 »Feisty Fawn« soll noch benutzerfreundlicher als die bisherigen Versionen werden. Erstmals ist ein Assistent enthalten, mit dem Daten und Einstellungen von Windows migriert werden können. Die Multimedia-Unterstützung wurde verbessert, indem sich Codecs, die in der Standardinstallation nicht enthalten sind, mittels Wizards auf einfache Weise nachinstallieren lassen. Die Unterstützung für WLAN wurde ebenfalls weiter optimiert und mittels Avahi lassen sich Dienste publizieren sowie Dienste und Hosts in einem lokalen Netz entdecken, ohne besondere Konfiguration zu benötigen. Der Desktop setzt unter anderem GNOME 2.18, OpenOffice.org 2.2.0rc3 und X.org 7.2 ein. Weitere in allen Varianten verwendete Pakete sind GCC 4.1.2, glibc 2.5, Linux 2.6.20 und Python 2.5.

Offizielle Varianten von Ubuntu sind Kubuntu mit KDE in der Standardinstallation, Xubuntu mit Xfce, Edubuntu mit Terminal-Server, Schul- und Ausbildungssoftware und eine Server-Variante. Die Varianten greifen alle auf den gleichen Software-Pool zurück.

Kubuntu 7.04 enthält statt GNOME KDE 3.5.6. Das Partitionierungsmodul im Installationsprogramm wurde neu geschrieben. Die Einrichtung des Netzes soll mit knetworkmanager einfacher werden. Die Paketverwaltung adept wurde verbessert. Als weitere Softwarepakete wurden Digikam 0.9.1 und Kexi beigelegt. Zeroconf (Avahi) ist aktiviert. Verbesserungen gab es auch in Guidance, einem Programm zum Steuern der Energiesparoptionen.

Die Server-Ausgabe von Ubuntu bietet bessere Unterstützung für Virtualisierung auch mit den Hardware-Fähigkeiten neuerer Prozessoren, die Kernel-basierte virtuelle Machine (KVM) und generell erweiterte Hardware-Unterstützung. Enthaltene Softwarepakete sind unter anderem Apache 2.2, PostgreSQL 8.2, PHP

Edubuntu lässt sich unmittelbar als Thin Client einsetzen. Der Classroom Server besteht aus zwei CDs, von denen eine die Server-Software und die zweite zusätzliche Sprachen und für Ausbildungszwecke nützliche Software enthält. Ferner wird das Edubuntu-Handbuch mit stark verbesserter Dokumentation mitgeliefert.

ArchLUG Xandros Repositories verwenden

Auch für Xandros hat die Linux User Group aus Saint Louis, Missouri, einige Repositories auf Lager:

Um diese zu verwenden muss die /etc/apt/sources.list um folgenden Eintrag erweitert werden:
deb http://www.archlug.org/apt xandros4 archlug

Unbedingt empfehlenswert sind auch die folgenden Quellen:
deb http://xnv4.xandros.com/4.0/upkg-i386 unsupported4.0-xn main contrib non-free

Weitere hilfreiche Informationen gibt es im englischsprachigen XandrosWiki der ArchLUG
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Last modified on 2006-12-24 14:49

Xandros Desktop Professional Deutsche Version 4.0 erschienen

Soeben ist die deutsche Version von Xandros Desktop Professional in der Version 4.0 erschienen. Es handelt sich dabei um ein komplettes Linux Desktop Betriebssystem und Programmpaket auf der Basis der stabilen Debian (Sarge) Distribution, die vor allem für Unternehmen und User bestimmt ist, die auf einfache Installation, Sicherheit, "professionelle" Supportunterstützung und große Stabilität Wert legen.

Die Version 4.0 wartet mit allen relevanten Programmen sowie Erweiterungen, die speziell für diese Distribution entwickelt wurde auf. Beinhaltet ist der stabile Kernel 2.6.18, X Window System 7.1, KDE 3.4.2, sowie eine Lizenz von CrossOver Office Standard 5.0.3. zur Integration von Windows Programmen in die Linux Oberfläche usw.

Wer einen Blick auf eine 30 Tage lauffähige Testversion werfen möchte, kann diese herunterladen. Kostenfreie, zudem in Teilen aktuellere Alternativen zu Xandros sind zum Beispiel Kubuntu 7.04 (Feisty Fawn).

Ein paar Tipps zu Xandros

Pinning mit Xandros / Debian

Quite often people want to be able to install applications from other repositories than those provided by Xandros. To minimize the risk to break something by accident (breaking by force is hard to prevent) in such mixed system, Debian (upon which Xandros is based on) provides a function called pinning.

While the basics of pinning is described in the link below, this HOWTO shows how to use pinning in Xandros.

http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/ch-apt-get.en.html#s-default-version

Furthermore, use the apt-get command directly from a console rather than using XN. Its faster, safer and gives you more options to control the installation process. Whish Xandros would add more of that stuff to XN. As long as you plan to stick to Xandros sites, you can still use XN successfully with suggested pinning.

This HOWTO applies both to X2 and X3 and is intended to give some basic settings. More advanced features can be found in the link above (e.g. how to setup own repositories with release files).

CONFIGURING /etc/apt/sorces.list

Contains all repositories to include in search for packages. It is explained in following link.

http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/apt-howto/ch-basico.en.html#s-sources.list

You may want to add following repositories from Debian.

deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian stable main contrib non-free
deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian testing main contrib non-free
deb http://http.us.debian.org/debian unstable main contrib non-free

Mirror sites can be found here.

http://www.debian.org/misc/README.mirrors

CONFIGURING /etc/apt/apt.conf

This file controls the behaviour of the APT system. Its not much that need to be configured in here. But following items can be good to know.

APT::Cache-Limit 10000000;

If you ever get a message like the one below, this item is the problem (the cache is too small). It may occur if you have enabled a couple of large repositories. In such case, just increase this value.

E: Dynamic MMap ran out of room


APT::Default-Release "xandros";

This one is not necessary since Xandros currently does not provide their own release archive name (which they should in my opinion).

For more items, take a look in the man page for apt-get and /usr/share/doc/apt/examples/apt.conf.

PINNING YOUR SYSTEM

When having multiple repositories it's not unusual that same package exists in more than one of those repositories, but with different version numbers. The default behaviour in an unpinned system is to install the one with the highest version number.

When mixing Xandros with repositories from other sites this is not the behaviour we want. Instead, what we want is to always install packages from Xandros repositories no matter what version they have and only if packages do not exist in Xandros repositories or we explicitly says so shall packages be installed from other repositories.

To achive this we pin our system by adding following lines to /etc/apt/preferences (if it does not exist, create it).

Package:
Pin: origin
Pin-Priority: 999

Package:

Pin: origin xnv3.xandros.com
Pin-Priority: 888

Package:
Pin: release a=testing
Pin-Priority: 666

Package:

Pin: release a=stable
Pin-Priority: 777

Package: *
Pin: release a=unstable
Pin-Priority: 555



Pinning gives various sources different priorities. Sources are recognized by their release information (requires a release file), origin or version number. In the above example we only use origin and release archive (release a=xxx) as identifiers.

This is what the pinning above does:

- First entry gives local repositories (CD, HD, USB memory etc.) highest priority (999). Those are recognized as being from an unknown origin (an empty string). It is possible to assign local repositories their own release files, which pinning can be based on. But that is out of scope for this discussion and not realy necessary

- Second entry gives Xandros supported and unsupported sites second highest priority (888). Those are pinned on the origin rather than release archive since Xandros does not provide proper release files. It's fine to have supported and unsupported at same priority since no package exists in both repositories simultaneously.

- The remaining entries are for download from Debian.

- Repositories not mentioned will have priority 500.

- Repositories with release archive name APT::Default-Release will have priority 990. We don't use this. We will however later on show how one can temporary assign an APT::Default-Release to a system to override the pinning.

If you add Xandros, Debian plus some local repositories you can use apt-cache policy to see the priority order.

OVERRIDING PINNING

Imagine we want to download firestarter firewall. Xandros repositories has version 0.9.3 while Debian has version 1.0.1. With the pinning in previous chapter, if we execute

apt-get install firestarter

version 0.9.3 will be installed. If we instead wanted to download the Debian version we had to execute the command below instead.

apt-get install firestarter/testing

This tells the APT system that firestarter shall be downloaded from the source with the release archive name testing and therby override the pinning for that particular package. Any libraries firestarter depends on will still be downloaded from Xandros repositories. If firestarter depends on versions of libraries not present in Xandros, installation will fail.

The solution to this is to execute following command in stead.

apt-get -t testing install firestarter

This tells the APT system to change our APT::Default-Release temporary to testing and thereby giving Debian testing repository priority 990. With the pinning in previous chapter this means firestarter and all its libraries will be downloaded from the Debian repository instead of Xandros.

DOWNGRADING

It is possible to downgrade packages as well. Assume we have installed firestarter v1.0.1 as described in previous chapter and now we have changed our mind and want to revert to v0.9.3 instead. To do this, we change the priority of Xandros sites from 888 to a value greater than 1000 (e.g. 1002) and executes

apt-get install firestarter

OTHER TIPS AND TRICKS

I mentioned previously I prefer using APT command line tools rather than XN. Here is one example how to use them:

1. apt-get update
2. apt-get -s install
3. If 2 seem OK, proceed to 4.
4. apt-get --no-remove install
5. If 4 fails, analyze the problem and if removal of packages seem OK do 4 again without --no-remove.

In 2 , we test what would happen if we installs a package without actually upating our system. If it looks suspicious, don't install the package.

In 4, we just add another level of protection while installing. If something will be removed as a consequence of the install, we want to abort the installation to analyze the problem (in my experience, package removal is the most common problem why system breaks).

Use man pages for more detailed description of each command.

apt-get update

The very first command to execute after any change in sources.list. In fact, it may be good idea to execute it from time to time even if sources.list has not changed since packages may have been added or removed from repositorise since last time.

apt-cache search

Search for package and/or package content

apt-cache show

Show package dscription

apt-get dist-upgrade


Does what XN update does

apt-get -s dist-upgrade
apt-get -s remove
apt-get -s install

Simulate an upgrade, remove or install.

apt-get -u dist-upgrade
apt-get -u install

Shows the complete list of packages which will be upgraded.

apt-get -o Debug::pkgProblemResolver=yes dist-upgrade
apt-get -o Debug::pkgProblemResolver=yes install

To know what's keeping or removing a package.

apt-get --no-remove dist-upgrade
apt-get --no-remove install

Install packages, but do not remove any as a consequence of that.

apt-get -d --reinstall install

Download packages, but don't install. Files are found under /var/cache/apt/archives.

apt-get clean

Deletes all in /var/cache/apt/archives (not done automatically unless explicitly configured to do so).

Another strategy is to perform:

dpkg --get-selections > myPackages.txt

before any package install. In case something goes wrong you can always reverse the process by applying

dpkg --set-selections < myPackages.txt
apt-get update
apt-get dselect-upgrade

this however only remove and installs packages as needed to fulfill the package state described in "myPackages.txt". It does not do any downgrade of package versions to my knowledge. For that you may need to follow the instructions here (its actually not complete, but a good start)

http://forums.xandros.com/viewtopic.php?t=11361

What I mean with downgrading is follow. A package A is mentioned in "myPackages.txt". You do install a package, which upgrades A to a newver version. Applying the commands above will not downgrade package A unless pinning is used.

The simplest way to see what happens is simply to try the commands for your self.

Quelle

Restoring von verschlüsselten /home Verzeichnissen

Aus dem xandrOS Forum:

Hello All,
i've just restored a Backup of my xandros homedirectory, /etc/passwd /etc/shadow etc... but can't access it, because the directory canout be mounted. ("passwd out of sync...", "user expired" etc.). I've also restored the /home/.usr_keys etc.

Any hints?


(...)
1. Restore all files in /home
2. Edit /etc/security/pam_mount.conf an add all from /home/.username.pam_mount.conf.bak to the end of this file:

Here an example with the user "xandros"

# /etc/security/pam_mount.conf
(...)
#
volume xandros crypt - /home/.xandros.fs /home/xandros cipher=aes,keysize=256,loop aes-256-cbc /home/.xandros.key

XandrOS und k3b

Unter xandrOS lässt sich k3b hervorragend mit folgender /etc/apt/sources.list installieren:
(...)
deb ftp://ftp.nerim.net/debian-marillat/ sarge main
deb http://xnv3.xandros.com/3.0/pkg unsupported3.0-xn main contrib non-free
deb http://www.archlug.org/apt xandros3 archlug boylinux zzupp


anschließend aptitude update;aptitude install k3b k3b-i18n


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Last modified on 2006-12-19 09:08